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APRENDER EL PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE DE LOS VERBOS INGLESES



Para formar el presente perfecto simple necesitamos el presente simple del verbo "to have" (tener, haber) y el participio de pasado de otro verbo. Para formar el participio de pasado de los verbos regulares añadimos "-ed" al verbo.


Ejemplo

I have studied the present perfect simple.
He estudiado el presente perfecto

Algunos verbos tienen cambios en su ortografía cuando añadimos "-ed".

Ejemplo
Si el verbo termina en "-e", sólo añadimos "-d" para formar el participio de pasado.

They live in a big house.
Viven en una casa grande
They have lived in a big house.
Han vivido en una casa grande

Si el verbo tiene una sola sílaba y las tres últimas letras son: consonante más vocal más consonante, doblaremos la última consonante y luego añadimos "-ed".

Ejemplo

The police stop the car.
La policía para el coche
The police have stopped the car.
La policía ha parado el coche

*Nota: hay muchos verbos que forman su participio de pasado de una forma irregular, así que tiene que estudiárselos de memoria porque no siguen la regla antes mencionada.

Ejemplo

We have gone to that museum already.
Ya hemos ido a ese museo

Para la forma negativa usamos "not" detrás del verbo "to have" (tener, haber).

Ejemplo

I have not (haven't) studied the present perfect simple tense.
No he estudiado el presente perfecto simple
He has not (hasn't) read about the present perfect simple tense.
Él no ha leído sobre el presente perfecto simple

Para la forma interrogativa colocamos el verbo "to have" (tener, haber) delante de la persona.

Ejemplo

Have you studied the present perfect simple tense?
¿Has estudiado el presente perfecto simple?
Has he read about the present perfect simple tense?
¿Ha leído (él) sobre el presente perfecto simple?






ALGUNOS USOS GENERALES

Usamos el presente perfecto simple para hablar en general de experiencias pasadas en nuestra vida. No decimos exactamente cuándo ocurrieron.

Ejemplo

I've been to America.
He estado en América
I have been to the National Gallery in London.
He estado en La National Gallery en Londres
Has she tasted that dish?
¿Ha probado ella ese plato?

También utilizamos el presente perfecto simple para expresar una acción que empezó en el pasado y todavía tiene consecuencias en el momento presente.

Ejemplo

She has written only one book but she has made a name for herself.
Ha escrito sólo un libro pero se ha ganado la fama

Ella escribió el libro en el pasado, el libro está completo y publicado, pero las consecuencias de escribir ese libro todavía están presentes ahora porque ella todavía disfruta de su fama.

They have bought a new house.
Han comprado una casa nueva

En este ejemplo la consecuencia de la acción es que todavía tienen la casa que compraron en el pasado. Con el presente perfecto simple podemos encontrar palabras para indicar la duración de la acción, el momento en el que empezó, etc como: For (durante), still (todavía), yet (todavía, ya), already (ya), ever (alguna vez), just (justo ahora) y since (desde).

Ejemplo

I have been here for hours.
He estado aquí durante horas
They have had that car since they got married.
Han tenido este coche desde que se casaron
We still have not heard from them.
Todavía no hemos oído de ellos
You have not thought about it yet.
Todavía no te lo has pensado
She has already gone.
Ella ya se ha ido
Have you ever flown in a helicopter?
¿Has volado alguna vez en helicóptero?
You have just missed your bus.
Acabas de perder tu autobús

Vamos a conjugar un verbo a modo de ejemplo. Vamos a coger el verbo "to study" (estudiar).





 

Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I have studied haven't studied Have I studied?
You have studied haven't studied Have you studied?
He has studied hasn't studied Has he studied?
She has studied hasn't studied Has she studied?
It has studied hasn't studied Has it studied?
We have studied haven't studied Have we studied?
You (all) have studied haven't studied Have you studied?
They have studied haven't studied Have they studied?


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