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LEARN ENGLISH DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Demonstrative pronouns are used to substitute nouns, and at the same time, to indicate whether they are close or far, in space or time, from the speaker in the moment of speaking. THIS (éste, ésta, esto) and THAT (ése, ésa, eso, aquél, aquélla, aquello) refer to singular nouns. THIS (éste, ésta, esto) shows a closer position of the object to the speaker and THAT (ése, ésa, eso, aquél, aquélla, aquello) a farther position. E.g.:

This is unbelievable. (Esto es increíble)

In this example, "this" (esto) can refer to an object or situation close in space or in time to the speaker in the moment of speaking.

That is unbelievable. (Eso es increíble)

In this example, "that" (eso) can refer to an object or situation farther in space or in time to the speaker in the moment of speaking.

THESE (éstos, éstas) and THOSE (ésos, ésas, aquéllos, aquéllas) refer to plural nouns. THESE (éstos, éstas) shows a closer position of the object to the speaker and THOSE (ésos,ésas, aquéllos, aquéllas) a farther position. E.g.:

These are unbelievable. (Éstos son increíbles)

In this example, "these" (éstos) can refer to some objects close in space or in time to the speaker in the moment of speaking.

Those are unbelievable. (Ésos son increíbles)

In this example, "those" (ésos) can refer to some objects farther in space or in time to the speaker in the moment of speaking.